Saturday, August 4, 2012

Sone Fundamentals of Criminological Theory: An Introductory Notes: Lectcure-CRIMINAL JUSTICE-101--John Jay College of Criminal Justice-CUNY, North Hall, NY, New York

SURVEILLANCE, CRIME & PHILOSOPHY & CULTURE Criminological Theory Lecture, Part II p.94 Theory/Hypothesis process. Review the theory—Poverty causes crime. (questions, how does the process work?) Criminological Schools 1. Classical—review. (Enlightenment) Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. Free wil, Hedonistic calculus, deterrence, retributivism. Neo—classical criminology---Rational Choice, Routine Activity, 2. Biological 3. Psychobiological 4. Psycological 5. Sociological 6. Conflict 7. Phenomenological 8. Emergent Theory. Interdisciplinary Theory? –the integration of mutiple disciplines in explaining crime causation and criminal behavior. Postivistic theory---free will vs. determinism. (philosophical question). Causal theory. No agency---criminal behavior is not a result of free will or choice, but caused by external factors like, i.e, physiology, social environment, genetics, economic-class structure, biological, sociological, economic—use of scientific methods or treatments to prevent or cure or rehabilitate criminal behavior. (educational--vocational, psychological, psychopharmocalogical treatment, social service and etc,)---- 1)Biological Theory---criminal behavior has physiological and a genetic basis. (causal theory) Historical origins. Franz Joseph Gall(1776-1535)--Phrenology----study of shape to determine correlates of human behavior, mainly, the study of the cranium, the bumps in one’s head, the facial, and anatomical characteristic is determinative of criminal behavior. “One looks like a criminal”. A criminal type---a difference between criminal and non-criminal according to physiological and anatomical characteristic. Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909). Father of Modern Criminology. Biological Positivism. A psychiatrist and criminal anthropologist. He studied the anatomy of criminals and correlates his physiological foundings with a criminal type, and found physical anomalies, and found these physical deviations from the non-criminal type, and theorized these physical development were due to not evolving from earlier period of human evolution (were devolved). Primitive characteristics---savage and primitive physical characteristic-----Atavism---Atavistic Anomolies. Long arm, large lips, crooked noses, lot of body hair, lobeless ears, high cheek bones--- Political-Cultural Critique----Orientalist critique-(Edward Said)--the criminals were Southern Italians----were isolated from main currents of Western Europe, and were considered primitive, dark skinned, tribal people, and hence, (non-Western European) and were not civilized, or cultivated and were subhuman……lesser people than Western Europeans, who were to controlled and dominated politically and culturally. Theory of the “Born Criminal” or “moral lunatic” late 19th and early Twentieth C. Western European and American theory of criminality--intellectual inferior, feeble minded, physiologically anomalous, who passed down heredity trait of criminality-----the legal and social control response was sterilization of the born criminal and the moral lunatic----Eugenics movement. The methodological critique of Lombroso---English Charles Goring, medical doctor, Karl Pearson (1914), a statistician. Compared 3000 the physiological characteristics of criminals with soldiers in British army and found that there was little physical differences. Importantly, Lombroso did not have a control group (a comparison group). Earest Hooten (1939)---created a anthropometric data base of criminals and compared them with non-criminals. He found out that criminal suffered from various physical inferiority; however, he reason that they were the sub-group of criminal population, who were captured by the authority, while the remainders of the criminals, who were not captured, may have been measured with conformist population. Criminal Families---the Jukes study, the Richard Dugdale, traced the family tree of Jukes family that traced 75 years of criminality and social degeneracy within the Jukes geneology, of which 1200 people within the family were considered social degenerates and non-conformist. Kallikak Families---Henry Goddard, compared the descendents from the offspring of Martin Kallikak who had an affair with a barmaid, and a marriage to a virtuous Quaker women. The affair with bairmaid produced produced more than half of social degenerate offspings. Where as out of 496 off springs from the marriage with the Quaker woman, only three were non-conformist. Somatyping---the body type was cause of criminality. Ectomporph, endomorph, mesmomorph. William Sheldon. 2. PsychoBiological Theory. Highlights the role of genetics, environmental contaminants, nutrition, hormones, biochemistry as variable in the causation of crime and criminal behavior. a)Chromozone theory---the chromozonal structure determines behavior in favor of criminal offending. Xyy—supermale theory. The extra male chromozone leads to high level of aggression and violence which leads males to commit crime. (The klinefeld syndrome)/. Another characteristic of the Klinefeld syndrome is low intelligence and feeble mindedness. Brain dysfunction, cognitive deficits, low level of serotonins, high level of testerone, low levels of certain transmitters, low level of thyroid hormones, brain damage/injury. High level of sugars---Twinkie defense. Richard Hernstein and James Q. Wilson, “Crime and Human Nature”—certain psychological characteristics as aggressiveness, impulsivity, and aggression, and certain physiological attributes interact with environmental factors as family, schooling, media which causes crime. Social Policy: What type of policy would be implemented if the biological-psycho-biological theory was the cause of the crime? (Class question) 3.Psychological Theory. Personality and mental faculties of the offender is the cause of crime or criminal behavior. a.)Behavioral Conditioning. Pavlov experiment. Salivating dog when the bell rings. Rewards and punishment motivates individual from offending or not. b)Freudian Psychoanalysis. The theory of consciousness---ego, id, superego. Ego---the source of the conscious self, id—source of sexual drive and gratification, superego---the moral conscience---source of right and wrong. Weak super ego---as explanation of law violating. Conscience is discounted in violating norma.---Pleasure principle---or the id----gratification, perhaps, sex crimes or sexual harassment---or lust murders.. Thanatos principles---death principle (death wish)---engaging self-destructive behavior. Smoking, taking drugs, prostitution, violating the law---- Psychopathology—the study of mental illness. Psycho-mind, pathology-disease. Psychopathy---A person with a personality disorder related to anti-social behavior due to poorly developed superego. Charles Manson. Psychosis---the psychotic offender. A mental illness in which the person is out of touch with reality or is delusional. Schizophrenia….a type of psychosis. (A person thinks he is being chased by vampires, and kills the person under the delusion.) Psychological Profiling----profiling the psychological and cognitive, motivational characteristic of offenders to investigate crime, an investigative tool. As it were, going into the mind of offender to calculate how he or she may act or do. Dangerousness: the likelihood that a given individual will harm society measured in terms of recidivism. Anti-social personality, psychopathic disorder---“incureable” hence, not released from custodial environment. Social Policy: what kind of policy will be implemented if such a theory are proven to be true. 4. Sociological Theory.

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